### Techniques>Concepts>Linear vs. circular

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Linear vs. circular

## Intro

One way to classify techniques is by their motion:
• Linear. A linear technique follows the path of a straight line, such as a straight fore fist punch (jab).
• Circular. A circular technique follows an arched path, such as a hook punch.

## Linear techniques

• Power. Maximum power is focused at a point in space, which may be just before the surface of the target (no-contact), at the surface (light-contact) or just beneath the surface (full-contact). If the technique misses the target, the power is instantly absorbed by the attacking arm or leg and is used during the retraction.
• Path. Travel path is a straight path and from the target.
• Momentum. Momentum stops at focus point and is instantly reversed. This means one can fire another technique immediately with the same arm or leg. For example, two quick, powerful jabs.
• Distance. The total distance traveled is as short as possible.
• Time. The total time of the technique is as short as possible.
• Speed. The maximum speed occurs for only an instant at the focus point.
• Follow-up. If a technique misses its target, it stops at its focus point and returns quickly so a follow-up technique may be executed quickly. As the technique return to chamber, the drawback action on that side of the body creates a push action on the other side of the body that will increase the power of a follow-up technique from that side.
• Range. Range of is limited only by the length of the arms or legs.
• Velocity. Maximum velocity is achieved near the end of the initial movement.
• Damage. To impart maximum damage to the target, the technique should be focused. That is, after gaining maximum velocity just at impact, the body is suddenly tensed to transfer energy to the target and then relaxed so the arm or leg can return to chamber quickly.

## Circular techniques

• Power. The maximum power of circular techniques is not focused. It occurs at some point during the technique’s movement around the circle and lasts until impact with the target. If the technique misses the target, the power gradually dissipates during the remainder of the circular movement.
• Path. Travel is in a circular path to and from the target.
• Momentum. The momentum of a circular technique is practically continuous from start to finish; if the target is struck, it causes some deviation of the technique from the circular path. This means one cannot fire another technique until the circle of movement is completed.
• Distance. The total distance traveled by the technique is much longer than that of a linear technique.
• Time. The total time of the technique is much longer than that of a linear technique.
• Speed. Speed decreases during the last third. The maximum speed of occurs during the middle third of its movement. Ideally, this will be at impact with the target.
• Follow-up. If a technique misses its target, it still must complete the remainder of its circular path, so any follow-up technique from that side is delayed. Circular movements allow a natural continuation of successive techniques as well as a continuous flow from technique to technique in combination as long as the follow-up techniques continue in the same direction. Circular movements typically necessitate the use of both hands and feet.
• Range. The attacking arm or leg is bent, which limits their range.
• Velocity. Maximum velocity is achieved at some point during the middle third of the movement and continues throughout that segment of the movement. This allows the maximum force to be applied to the target.
• Damage. Since maximum force is applied for a relatively long time, has more time to do damage to the target. If the target and the technique are moving in the same direction, the technique may overtake the target and inflict damage.

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