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Taekwondo>Terminolgy>Terms

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Terms

Intro

Why learn Korean terminology? Why not just use your own county’s translation of the terminology? Part of the attraction people have with the martial arts is learning a part of the culture of the home country of the martial art. People are fascinated with things that are different from those in their ordinary lives. In addition, when all the practitioners of a martial art use a common terminology, it makes communication easier during international events or when training in foreign countries or with foreign instructors. I once trained at a Judo club in Iceland that had a visiting Japanese instructor. I did not speak Icelandic. Neither the Icelander’s nor I could speak Japanese and the instructor could not speak Icelandic or English. However, since we all used the same Japanese Judo terminology, the classes went smoothly.

Since the Korean language is written using "Hangul" and not the Roman alphabet, the English translations presented here are approximate Romanizations. For more information, search the Internet for "Korean Romanizations".

For some audio clips of Korean pronunciations, check out this link.

Numbers and counting

1: Ha-na
2: Tul
3: Set
4: Net
5: Da-sot
6: Yo-sot
7: Il-gop
8: Yeo-dul
9: A-hop
10: Yeol
11: Yeol-hanna
12: Yeol -tul
13: Yeol-set
etc.
20: Su-mul
21: Su-mul-hanna
22: Su-mul tul
etc.
30: So-run
31: So-run-hanna
32: So-run tul
etc.
40: Ma-hun
41: Ma-hun-hanna
42: Ma-hun-tul
etc.
50: Schwin
51: Schwin-hanna
52: Schwin-tul
etc.
60: Yeh-sun
61: Yeh-sun hanna
62: Yeh-sun tul
etc.
70: Ihr-run
71: Ihr-run-hanna
72: Ihr-run-tul
etc.
80: Yowh-dun
81: Yowh-dun-hanna
82: Yowh-dun-tul
etc.
90: A-hun
91: A-hun-hanna
92: A-hun-tul
etc.
100: Paek
101: Paek-hanna
102: Paek-tul
etc.

1st: Il
2nd: Ee
3rd: Sum
4th: Sah
5th: Oh
6th: Yook
7th: Ch'ill
8th: P'al
9th: Ku
10th: Sip
11th: Sip Il
etc.
20th: Ee-sip
21st: Ee-sip il
etc.
30th: Sam-sip
31st: Sam-sip il
etc.
40th: Sah-sip
50th: Oh-sip
60th: Yook-sip
70th: Chil-sip
80th: Pal-sip
90th: Koo-sip
100th: Il-bak

Disciplines

  • Forms: Poomse/Hyung/Tul
  • Self-defense: Hosinsul
  • Sparring: Gyorugi
  • Breaking: Gyu-pky

Tenets

  • Courtesy: Ye-ui
  • Integrity: Yom-chi
  • Perseverance: In- nae
  • Self-control: Kuk-ji
  • Indomitable Spirit: Baek-jool

Directions

  • Left: Wen
  • Right: Oh-reun
  • Front: Ahp
  • Back: Dwi
  • High: Napunde
  • Low: Najunde
  • Inner: An
  • Outer: Bakat
  • Inward: Anuro
  • Outward: Bakuro
  • High (head area): Sang-dan
  • Middle (body area): Joong-dan
  • Low (below belt): Ha-dan
  • Middle: Kaunde
  • Reverse: Bandae
  • Obverse: Baro

Parts of the body

  • Abdomen: Dan-jun
  • Ankle: Baal-mahk
  • Arm: Pahl
  • Ball of Foot: Apchook
  • Body: Mom
  • Body (upper): Eolgool
  • Body (middle): Momtong
  • Body (lower): Ahre
  • Chin: Tuck
  • Ear: Qui
  • Elbow: Pal-koup
  • Eye: Noon
  • Face: Olgul
  • Finger: Sonkahrak
  • Finger, Tip: Sonkut
  • Finger, tip, flat: Opun Sonkut
  • Fist: Jumeok
  • Foot: Baal
  • Arch: Baal-bong-oh -ri
  • Footsword: Baal-kal
  • Instep: Baal Dung
  • Outside edge: Baal-naal
  • Inside edge: An-baal-naal
  • Ball: Baal-badak
  • Sole: Ahp-chook
  • Heel: Dwi-koomchi
  • Bottom of heel: Dwi-chook
  • Toes: Baal-kuet
  • Forearm: Palmok
  • Inner side: Ahn-palmok
  • Outer side: Bahkat-palmok
  • Palm side: Meet-palmok
  • Back: Deung-palmok
  • Back side: Wi -palmok
  • Fore-fist: Ap -joomuk
  • Forehead: Ee -ma
  • Groin: Nulro
  • Hand: Son
  • Outside edge, knifehand: Son -nal
  • Inside edge, ridgehand: Son-kal dueng
  • Back: Son-dueng
  • Head: Mo-li
  • Joint: Kwanjeol
  • Knee: Murupp
  • Leg: Dari
  • Mouth: Eep
  • Neck: Mok
  • Nose: Ko
  • Palm: Batangson
  • Philtrum: In-joong
  • Shin: Ahp-jung-jang-yi
  • Shoulder: Ouka
  • Solar plexus: Myung-chi
  • Spear hand: Pyonsonkkeut
  • Throat: Mokoomeong
  • Waist: Hur Ri
  • Back heel: Dwichook
  • Wrist: Sonmok

Commands

  • Attention: Char-yot
  • Bow: Kyong-nae
  • When bowing to senior, say: Sun-bae nim-ke kyung-nae
  • When bowing to master, say: Sa-bum nim-ke kyung-nae
  • When bowing to flag: Kukiyeh, Kyung-nae
  • Ready: Choom-bi
  • Begin: Shi-jak
  • Break: Kalryo
  • Continue: Kyesok
  • Stop: Goman
  • Return: Bah ro
  • Relax/at ease: Shiuh
  • Left-right face: Chwa-u hyang-u
  • Turn around: Dolra
  • About face: Dwi-ro-dorah
  • Foot switch: Bahl-bah-kwah
  • Sit: Chak-suk
  • Dismissed: E-sahn

Blocks

  • Block: Mahki
  • High block: Eolgool mahki
  • Low block: Ahrae mahki
  • Middle block: Momtong mahki
  • Inward block: Ahnuro mahki
  • Outward block: Bahkuro mahki
  • Scissors block: Gawi mahki
  • Diamond-shaped block: Keumgang mahki
  • X-Shaped block: Yeot pero mahki
  • Twisting block: Bituro mahki
  • Knife hand block: (inside to outside): Son-nal-bakat mahki
  • Low Knife hand block: Soo do ha dn bang Uh
  • High Knife hand block: Soo do sang dn bang Uh
  • Inside/outside block: Aneh seh bake ro mahki
  • Outside/inside block: Bakeh seh aneh ro mahki
  • Double middle block: Sang so joong dan mahki
  • Four-direction block: Saju mahki
  • Braced block: Geodeureo mahki
  • Outside block: Bakat mahki
  • Rising block: Chookyo mahki
  • Inside block: An mahki

Kicks

  • Kick: Chagi
  • Jumping: E dan
  • Front kick: Ap chagi
  • Jump front kick: E dan ap chagi
  • Flying front kick: Yi dan ap chagi
  • High front snap kick: Sang dan ap chagi
  • Middle front snap kick: Joong Ddan ap chagi
  • Side kick: Yop chagi
  • Jump side kick: E dan yup chagi
  • Flying side kick: Yi dan Yyup chagi
  • Back spin kick: Dwi dull ryo chagi
  • Sidesnap kick: Yup podo chagi
  • Back pivot side kick: Dwi dolah chagi
  • Roundhouse kick: Dolgo chagi
  • Jump roundhouse kick: E-dan dolga chagi
  • Back kick: Dwi chagi
  • Jump back kick: E-dan dwi chagi
  • Axe kick: Nehryuh  chagi
  • Spinning hook kick: Dwi dol yeo chagi
  • Hook kick: Yup Hu chagi
  • Side piercing kick: Youcha jirugi chagi
  • Rising kick: Cha olligi chagi
  • Twisting kick: Bituro chagi
  • Turning kick: Dollyo chagi
  • Vertical kick: Sewo chagi
  • Downward kick: Naeryo chagi
  • Reverse turning kick: Bandae dollyo chagi
  • Reverse hooking kick: Bande dollyo Goro chagi
  • Front snap kick: Apcha busigi chagi
  • Back snap kick: Dwitcha busigi chagi
  • Back piercing kick: Dwi jirugi chagi
  • Crescent kick: Bahndall chagi
  • Inside to outside crescent kick: Ahneso phaku ro chagi
  • utside to inside crescent kick: Phakeso ahnuro chagi

Stances

  • Stance: Sohgi
  • Front stance: Ahp sohgi
  • Back&nbsp stance: Dwi sohgi
  • Walking stance: Kuht Neun sohgi
  • Horseback riding stance: Juchum sohgi
  • Fighting stance: Mot sohgi
  • Sparring stance: Kyorugi sohgi
  • Ready stance: Choom bi sohgi
  • Kicking stance: Chagi sohgi
  • L stance: Niunja sohgi
  • Back stance: Dwitkubi sohgi
  • Tiger stance: Born sohgi
  • Twisted stance: Koa sohgi
  • Walking stance: Gunnun sohgi
  • X stance: Kyocha sohgi
  • Vertical stance: Soo Jik sohgi
  • Fixed stance: Gojung So sohgi
  • Parallel ready stance: Naranhi-sohgi
  • Rear foot stance: Dwit bal sohgi
  • Sitting stance: Annun sohgi
  • Close ready stance: Mao junbi sohgi
  • Closed stance: Moa sohgi
  • Bending stance: Guburyo sohgi
  • Cat stance: Jookul sohgi
  • Crane stance: Hakdari sohgi

Punches

  • Punch: Chirugi
  • High punch: Eolgool chirugi
  • Middle Ppunch: Momtung chirugi
  • Low punch: Ahraechirugi
  • Reverse punch: Bahn dae chirugi
  • Double punch: Doo bun
  • Four-direction punch: Saju chirugi
  • Triple punch: Sae Bun chirugi
  • Punch to body: Sonnal mok chirugi
  • Knife hand punch: Yak gin chirugi
  • Lunge punch: Junzuki chirugi
  • Middle punch: Joong dan chirugi
  • Palm heel: Jang kwon
  • Ridge hand: Yuk soo
  • Double punch: Doobeon chirugi
  • Spear hand: Kwan soo
  • Back fist: Kap kwon
  • Spear fingers: Pyeonsonkoot chirugi
  • Fist: Jung Kwon
  • Thrust: Tulgi
  • Strike: Taerig
  • Scissors-shaped spear finger thrust: Gawi sahnkeut

Sparring

  • Step-sparring: Daeryon
  • One-step sparring: Il soo sik daeryon
  • Free sparring: Ja yoo daeryon
  • Blue: Chung
  • Red: Hong
  • Point: Jeum
  • Out of bounds: Keum bahk
  • Warning: Kyong Hana
  • One warning: Kyong-go hana
  • Point deduction: Gam jeum
  • Penalty point: Kam jom hana
  • Disqualification: Shil kyuk
  • Win: Seung
  • Tie: Bi kim
  • Round: Jeon
  • First Round: Il weh-jeon
  • Second Round: Yi weh-jeon
  • Third Round: Sam weh-jeon
  • Injury: Boo sang
  • Stop: Ku-man
  • Separate/pause: Kal-lyo
  • Continue: Kae-sok
  • Turn: Jwa-u hyang-u
  • Return to position: Won-wi-chi
  • Referee: Joo sim
  • Judge: Bu sim

Rank

  • Rank: Kagup
  • Grade (color belts): Gup
  • Degree (senior black belts): Dan
  • Degree (junior black belts): Poom
  • Grandmaster: Kwan jang nim
  • Chief Instructor: Chung sah nim
  • Master: Sabum nim
  • Instructor: Sabum
  • Assistant Instructor: Jo kyo nim
  • Senior Student: Sun bae nim
  • Kings, teachers, master, and fathers are of the same mind and body: Koon sa boo il che
  • Student: Yoo kup jar
  • Black Belt Holder: Yoo dan ja
  • Student: Hak saeng

Equipment and uniform

  • Uniform: Dobok
  • Belt: Dhee
  • Chest protector: Hogoo
  • Groin cup: Nang shim bohodae
  • Head gear: Muh ree bohodae
  • Mouth guard: Eep bohodae
  • Shin guard: Jung kang yi bohodae

Miscellaneous

  • Fundamental practice: Kibon dongjak
  • Freeing techniques: Paegi
  • Attack with hand: Chigi
  • Meditation: Mokium
  • Sit: Honcho
  • Equilibrium: Kyun hyung
  • Attack: Gong gyuck
  • Speed: Sokdo
  • Mass: Zilyang
  • Defense: Bang-o
  • Four-direction movement: Sajoe
  • Straighten: Tonsinique
  • Stabbing: Chireugi
  • Gymnasium: Dojang
  • School: Kwan
  • Yell: Ki-yup
  • Yes: Ye
  • No: Anio
  • Flag: Cook ki
  • Forms: Poomse/hyung
  • Meditation: Mukyum
  • Breathing: Ho hyoop
  • Force/power: Himm
  • Life energy: Ki
  • Stretch: Cha olligi
  • Push: Mil a chagi
  • Sitting: Annun
  • Walking: Gunnun
  • Breathing control: Shim ho hyoop
  • Breaking: Kyuk pa
  • Demonstration: Shibum
  • Stretching: Pyugi
  • Forging bag: Dallyon dag
  • Forging post: Dallyon joo
  • Pants: Ha-l
  • Push up: Momtong Bbachim
  • Meditate: Mooknyum
  • Shirt: Sang-l
  • Board holder: Gyopa tul
  • Side leg stretching: Yup podo ole ri gi
  • Side attack: Joon dan haeng gin
  • Main school/headquarters: Joong ang do jang
  • Breaking: Kyuk Pa
  • Front leg stretching: Aup Podo Ole Ri Gi
  • Focus: Kime
  • Branch school: ji kwan
  • Speed control: Wan gup
  • Basic forms: Ki cho hyung
  • Attack: Kyong kyuk
  • Release from grab: Jappyosul tae
  • Defense against a knife attack: Dae dando

Common phrases

  • Thank you: Kahm sa hamnida
  • Respect elders, love juniors: Sang kyeong ha ye
  • How are you?: Ahnyong hasimnika
  • Nice to meet you: Pangap seumnida
  • See you later: Toh poepkeseoyo
  • Welcome: Eoseo osayo
  • I'm sorry: Choesong hamnida
  • Excuse me: Shillye hamnida
  • That's all right: Kwaen chanayo
  • One strike must kill: Il sok pil sai
  • Faith in certain victory: Pilsung

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