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Combat>Physical aspects>Effects of spinal injuries

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Effects of spinal injuries

Intro

When sparring, contact to the back is illegal and will draw a warning or possible disqualification. Two reasons for this are the kidneys and the spine. A ruptured kidney could lead to death if not treated quickly, but, with treatment, you would probably recover with no further problems. However, depending on the location of the fracture, a fracture to the spine could result in serious problems, some of which may be permanent.

In a life or death, self-defense situation, the spine may be a valid target. The effects of a strike to the spine will depend on where it is struck, the force of the strike, and the severity of the injury.

Parts of the spine

The spine is divided into four segments, with the coccyx (tail bone) at the base:
  • Cervical
  • Thoracic
  • Lumbar
  • Sacrum
Each disk in a segment and its associated nerves is named with a letter-number combination and each disk is associated with certain bodily functions.

Effect of blows to the spine

The following indicates the spine segment, the disk number, the functions affected by the disk, and what the possible effects may be if the disk is injured.

Cervical segment

C1
Functions affected: pituitary gland, brain, and sympathetic nervous system.
Effects of injury: unconsciousness, headache, dizziness, and insomnia.

C2
Functions affected: eyes, optic nerves, and auditory nerves.
Effects of injury: blindness, deafness, and unconsciousness.

C3
Functions affected: trifacial nerve, Eustachian tube, neck glands, pharynx, vocal cords, neck muscles and shoulders, thyroid gland, shoulder joints, and elbows.
Effects of injury: neuralgia and neuritis.

C4
Functions affected eustachian tube
Effects of injury: loss of hearing and movement of the shoulder.

C5
Functions affected: neck glands, pharynx, vocal cords.
Effects of injury: loss of voice and movement of arms.

C6
Functions affected: neck muscles and shoulders.
Effects of injury: neck and upper arm paralysis.

C7
Functions affected: thyroid gland, shoulder joints, and elbows.
Effects of injury: loss of arm and shoulder movement.

Thoracic segment

T1
Functions affected: arms from elbows down, esophagus and trachea.
Effects of injury: loss of breath, difficult breathing, and pain in lower arms and hands.

T2
Functions affected: heart and coronary arteries.
Effects of injury: loss of the heart function and chest conditions.

T3
Functions affected: lungs, bronchial tubes, and chest.
Effects of injury: loss of breath, fever, and night sweating.

T4
Functions affected: gallbladder.
Effects of injury: malfunction of gallbladder.

T5
Functions affected: liver, solar plexus, blood, and splanchnic nerve.
Effects of injury: death, vomiting blood, cardiac pain, poor circulation, liver problems, and dizziness.

T6
Functions affected: stomach, splanchnic nerve.
Effects of injury: death, vomiting blood, cardiac pain, and abdominal pain.

T7
Functions affected: pancreas, duodenum, splanchnic nerve.
Effects of injury: coughing, pain in chest and back, stiffness of the spinal column, and vomiting.

T8
Functions affected: spleen, splanchnic nerve.
Effects of injury: stiffness in the back, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

T9
Functions affected: adrenal and supra-renal glands, splanchnic nerve.
Effects of injury: pain in the chest, blurry vision, and mental confusion.

T10
Functions affected: kidneys and abdomen.
Effects of injury: kidney problems and hardening of arteries.

T11
Functions affected: kidney and uterus.
Effects of injury: kidney problems and abdominal pains.

T12
Functions affected: small intestines, lymph circulation.
Effects of injury: sterility and abdominal pain.

Lumbar segment

L1
Functions affected: large intestines, inguinal rings.
Effects of injury: internal ruptures, undigested food, and intestinal malfunction.

L2
Functions affected: appendix, abdomen, upper legs, femoral nerve.
Effects of injury: cramps, difficulty in breathing, impotency, thigh paralysis, and blurred vision

L3
Functions affected: sex organs, uterus, bladder, knees, femoral nerve.
Effects of injury: bladder trouble, thigh paralysis, and knees.

L4
Functions affected: prostate gland, muscles of the lower back, sciatic and femoral nerve.
Effects of injury: difficult and painful urination, impotence, and hip paralysis.

L5
Functions affected: lower legs, ankles, feet, sacral nerves.
Effects of injury: poor circulation and weakness in legs, hip paralysis, and leg paralysis.

Sacrum segment

S1
Functions affected: sacral nerves for vessels on leg.
Effects of injury: hip and leg or foot paralysis.

S2
Functions affected: distal colon, rectum, external genitalia, and pelvic nerve.
Effects of injury: hip, leg or foot paralysis, and retention of urine.

S3
Functions affected: bladder, distal colon, rectum, external genitalia, and pelvic nerve
Effects of injury: paralysis of the leg.

S4
Functions affected: bladder, distal colon, rectum, external genitalia, and pelvic nerve.
Effects of injury: paralysis of the hip joint and lower back.

S5
Functions affected: sympathetic chain and sacral nerves.
Effects of injury: paralysis of lower extremities.

Coccyx

Functions affected: coccygeal nerve, rectum, and anus.
Effects of injury: paralysis of both legs.

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