IntroA hold (or hold-down) is a grappling technique used to control and hold an opponent so he or she cannot escape. Holds may be categorized by their function such as clinching, pinning, pain compliance, or submission.
Clinching holdsClinching holds are used to control or tie up the opponent. They may be used as a precursor to a take-down or throw, to prevent the opponent from moving away, or to prevent the opponent from striking effectively.
Some examples clinches are:
- Bear hug
- Collar tie
- Over hook
- Pinch grip tie
- Under hook
Pinning holdsPinning holds (also known as hold downs) are used in ground fighting to exert superior control over an opponent and pin him or her to the ground. Pinning holds where both the opponent's shoulders touch the ground are considered a win in some combat sports. In judo, pinning and controlling the opponent for 25 seconds is a win. Pinning holds are also used in submission wrestling and mixed martial arts, even though the pinning hold itself is not a winning condition.
Pinning holds can be used to allow you to rest while the opponent tries to escape or they can be used to control the opponent while striking him or her, a tactic known as ground and pound.
Some examples of pinning holds are found in some judo pins:
- Kami-shiho-gatame. Upper four quarter hold down
- Kata-gatame. Shoulder hold
- Kesa-gatame. Scarf hold
- Kuzure-kami-shiho-gatame. Broken upper four quarter hold down
- Kuzure-kesa-gatame. Broken scarf hold
- Tate-shiho-gatame. Horizontal four quarter hold
Pain compliance holdsPain compliance holds use a painful joint lock, compression lock, or pressure point technique to control an opponent. They are used to force a person to comply with your commands, such as to get out of a car or move in a certain direction. They are used as self-defense techniques in many martial arts, especially in aikido and jujutsu.
This type of hold is frequently used by police and corrections personnel in accordance with an "escalation of force" policy where they are required to use the least amount of force necessary to subdue or arrest a subject; however, such techniques presume a rational adversary. Some altered states such as mental illness, extreme flexibility, drug use, or extreme adrenaline may alter the subject's perception of pain or willingness to submit.
Some examples of pain compliance holds are:
- Pressure points
- Wrist locks
- Finger bends
Submission holdsA submission hold is a combat sports term for a grappling hold applied to force an opponent to submit, either due to extreme pain or fear of injury. In a self-defense situation, submission may not be the desired outcome. The release of a submission hold may result in a renewed attack by the attacker. In a self-defense situation, a submission hold may be maintained until the attacker is unconscious or help arrives.
Some examples of submission holds are:
- Leg bars